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  • Making steel ArcelorMittal

    Making steel. Steel is made from iron ore, a compound of iron, oxygen and other minerals that occurs in nature. The raw materials for steelmaking are mined and then transformed into steel using two different processes: the blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace route, and the electric arc furnace route.

  • Extraction of Metals from Their Ores - SPM Chemistry

    Dec 20, 2012· Extraction of Iron Iron is extracted from its ore, that is hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) through reduction by carbon in the form of carbon in a blast furnace. The mixture of iron ore, carbon, and limestone is entered into a blast furnace through the top of the furnace.

  • Thermodynamic Principles of Metallurgy: Ellingham Diagram

    Since aluminium oxide is more stable it is used in the extraction of chromium by a thermite process. 2) Extraction of Iron. Extraction of iron from its oxide is done in a blast furnace. Here the ore mixes with coke and limestone in the furnace. Actually, the reduction of the iron oxides happens at

  • CHEMISTRY: The extraction of Iron and its impact on the

    Sep 04, 2012· GENERAL OVERVIEW. Iron is extracted through a method called reduction. Raw materials used in the extraction of iron are: Oxygen has to be removed from iron (III) oxide chemically to obtain iron. Iron (III) oxide is reduced when oxygen is removed from it. A blast furnace is used for this process [Figure 4].

  • Spectrophotometric Determination of Trace Iron in Solution

    a vertical line straight down to the concentration on the x-axis. The point where this intersects the x-axis represents the concentration of the unknown solution. 2. Use the equation of the line. If A = εbc and b=1, then c = A/ε. Use a spreadsheet program or a graphing calculator to plot your data and determine a best-fit line

  • Lines Detection with Hough Transform by Socret Lee

    May 01, 2020· The equation to calculate a slope of a line. There is one flaw with representing lines in the form of y = ax + b and the Hough Space with the slope and intercept. In this form, the algorithm wont be able to detect vertical lines because the slope a is undefined/infinity for vertical lines (Leavers, 1992). Programmatically, this means that a computer would need an infinite amount of memory

  • Hough Transform. A comprehensive guide to edge detection

    Sep 27, 2019· The equation of the line in the image space is of the form y = mx + c where m is the slope and c is the y-intercept of the line. This line will be transformed to a point of the form (m, c) in the

  • IV. Three-Phase Induction Machines

    iii. Line Current iv. Input Power v. Airgap Power vi. Torque Developed vii. Output Power in Hp viii. Efficiency This machine has no iron loss resistance, so the equivalent circuit is as follows: i. Synchronous speed is given by: ii. Slip is given by Using the rpm equation, iii. Now, phase current is given by s = (1200-1170)/1200 = 0.025

  • Extraction of Iron (examples, answers, activities

    Carbon is more reactive than iron, so it can push out or displace the iron from iron oxide. Here are the equations for the reaction: iron oxide + carbon iron + carbon dioxide 2Fe 2 O 3 + 3C 4Fe + 3CO 2

  • Iron processing - Iron making Britannica

    Iron processing - Iron processing - Iron making: The primary objective of iron making is to release iron from chemical combination with oxygen, and, since the blast furnace is much the most efficient process, it receives the most attention here. Alternative methods known as direct reduction are used in over a score of countries, but less than 5 percent of iron is made this way.

  • Electrochemical Reactions - Purdue University

    In the Nernst equation, E is the cell potential at some moment in time, E o is the cell potential when the reaction is at standard-state conditions, R is the ideal gas constant in units of joules per mole, T is the temperature in kelvin, n is the number of moles of electrons transferred in the balanced equation for the reaction, F is the charge

  • Hydrometallurgical Processing - ScienceDirect

    Jan 01, 2014· One equation that is similar to the DebyeHuckel equation, easier to use, and has similar accuracy for moderately dilute solutions (< 0.1 m) is the Davies equation: (2.7.12) log γ i = B z i 2 I 1 + I 0.2 I B is a constant (0.5094 at 298 K, changes slightly as a function of temperature), z i is the species charge, and I, the ionic

  • C# OCR Library Iron Ocr

    Pass IronOCR single or multi page scanned images to receive all text, barcode, & QR content in return. The OCR library provides a set of classes to add OCR functionality into Web, Desktop or Console .Net Applications. Input formats can include PDF, JPG, PNG, GIF,

  • new automated spectral feature extraction method and its

    Mg 1, Mg 2, Mgb and nine iron lines were averaged to represent the composite line indices of Mg and Fe, respectively. The G band (CH) and TiO 2 were selected to represent the molecular bands. Among these line indices, Hγ and Mg are suitable for distinguishing F-, G- and K-type spectra and they also lie in the wavelength range with relatively

  • Thermite Reaction: aluminum reacts with iron(III) oxide

    The reaction of iron (III) oxide and aluminum is initiated by heat released from a small amount "starter mixture". This reaction is an oxidation-reduction reaction, a single replacement reaction, producing great quantities of heat (flame and sparks) and a stream of molten iron and aluminum oxide which pours out of a hole in the bottom of the pot into sand.

  • Calculation of Local Iron Loss in Electrical Machines

    designing of the machine and its cooling system are most important. In this paper, a Finite Element based simulation coupled with well known hysteresis model called Preisach model is used to calculate local iron loss of a synchronous machine. Calculation of iron

  • Extracting iron - Iron and aluminium - GCSE Chemistry

    Carbon is more reactive than iron, so it can displace iron from iron (III) oxide. Here are the equations for the reaction: Iron (III) oxide + carbon iron + carbon dioxide 2Fe2O3(s) + 3C (s) 4Fe

  • Extraction of Iron from Haematite Grade 12 Science Notes

    Extraction of Iron from Haematite. 1. Concentration: Haematite ore being oxide ore is concentrated by gravity separation process using hydraulic separator. The oxide is being heavier settles to the bottom while lighter impurities come to the surface and is removed. 2.

  • Spectrophotometric Determination of Iron for Highschools

    Standard iron solution (0.2500 g/L) ~30 mL 0.3% weight/volume o-phenanthroline solution ~40 mL 10% weight/volume hydroxylamine hydrochloride ~40 mL 2. Prepare the following iron calibration solutions by pipetting the indicated amounts of the above iron solution (step 1) into labeled 50 mL volumetric flasks. The first flask is a

  • The Extraction of Iron - Chemistry LibreTexts

    Aug 15, 2020· The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch ® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and t. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057,

  • Iron removal by physical chemical way - Lenntech

    Iron is one of the most abundant metals of the Earth's crust. It occurs naturally in water in soluble form as the ferrous iron (bivalent iron in dissolved form Fe 2+ or Fe(OH) +) or complexed form like the ferric iron (trivalent iron: Fe 3+ or precipitated as Fe(OH) 3).The occurrence of iron in water can also have an industrial origin ; mining, iron and steel industry, metals corrosion, etc.

  • Iron processing Britannica

    Iron processing, use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned.Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting. Iron (Fe) is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive magnetic properties. It constitutes 5 percent by weight of the Earths crust, and it is the

  • The McCabe Thiele Graphical Design Method

    operating line for rectification 3. Pick bottoms composition, X B, and Boilupratio, V B, and draw operating line for stripping XB 4. Start stepping off from the distillate end until the intersection of the two operating lines is passed. 5. Continue stepping but use the

  • Extracting iron - Redox, extraction of iron and transition

    in a huge container called a blast furnace. Iron ores such as haematite contain iron(III) oxide, Fe 2 O 3. The oxygen must be removed from the iron(III) oxide in order to leave the iron behind.

  • How to Calculate Molar Absorptivity: 8 Steps (with Pictures)

    Mar 29, 2019· The equation for the slope of a line is (Y 2 - Y 1)/(X 2 - X 1). The point higher on the line is given the subscript 2, while the lower point is given the subscript 1. For example: The absorbance at a .2 molar concentration is 0.27 and at 0.3 molar is 0.41. The absorbance values are Y-values, while concentrations are X-values.

  • Cambridge International Examinations Cambridge

    4 Iron from a blast furnace contains about 5% of the impurities carbon, silicon, phosphorus and sulfur. Most of this impure iron is used to make steels, such as mild steel, and a very small percentage is used to make pure iron. (a) Calcium oxide and oxygen are used to remove the impurities from the iron produced in the blast furnace.

  • Extraction of Iron from its ores, Iron dressing, Reduction

    Oct 23, 2018· Iron ( 26 Fe: (18 Ar), 4S 2, 3d 6 ) is found in the earths crust in the form of natural ores which contains different iron oxides mixed with impurities such as Silica (SiO 2), (Al 2 O 3), CaO, and MgO, and some harmful impurities such as s, p and As, The suitability of the ore in the extraction of iron economically depends on three factors which are:

  • CBSE NCERT Notes Class 12 Chemistry Isolation of Elements

    The iron obtained from Blast furnace contains about 4% carbon and some other impurities. This iron is known as pig iron. Cast iron is different from pig iron and is made by melting pig iron with scrap iron and coke using hot air blast. It has slightly lower carbon

  • How iron is made - material, manufacture, making, history

    Extraction 1 Much of the world's iron ore is extracted through open pit mining in which the Pure iron is a soft, grayish-white metal. Although iron is a common element, pure iron is almost never found in nature. surface of the ground is removed by heavy machines, often over a very large area, to expose the ore beneath. In cases where it is

  • Extraction of Iron & Concentration of Ore - An Overview

    Sep 23, 2019· Malleable Iron Malleable Iron is the purest form of iron available commercially and is prepared from cast iron by heating cast iron in a furnace lined with Haematite (Fe2O3). The Haematite then reacts with Carbon in the cast iron to give pure iron and carbon monoxide gas. Fe

  • Slag - Wikipedia

    Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide.However, slags can contain metal sulfides and elemental metals. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of

  • Solvent Extraction Plants: Thiele Diagram & Theoretical

    Feb 01, 2017· In dump leaching, save for iron, this may be of little importance but in closed circuits such as fig (i) impurity levels could be 18 20 gpl due to the high gangue content of the ore. The number of extraction stages required is obviously important because of capital equipment costs and reagent inventory. The number of stages required is a

  • Coke (fuel) - Wikipedia

    Coke is a grey, hard, and porous fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, made by heating coal or oil in the absence of aira destructive distillation process. It is an important industrial product, used mainly in iron ore smelting, but also as a fuel in stoves and forges when air pollution is a concern.. The unqualified term "coke" usually refers to the product derived from low

  • Experimental evaluation of the extractability of iron

    Dec 05, 2020· Current extraction methods may incompletely extract reactive iron phases Quantifying the efficiency of Fe R extraction techniques has largely been neglected within the literature due to the nature of chemical methods being operationally defined, making it difficult to calibrate these against alternative methods of measuring Fe R phases such as

  • Introduction to Motion Estimation with Optical Flow

    Apr 24, 2019· Introduction to Motion Estimation with Optical Flow. In this tutorial, we dive into the fundamentals of Optical Flow, look at some of its applications and implement its two main variants (sparse and dense). We also briefly discuss more recent approaches using deep learning and promising future directions.

  • Iron Smelting Essential Humanities

    Iron Smelting Introduction. Three types of iron may be distinguished according to carbon content. Wrought iron contains virtually none, while the carbon content of cast iron is about 2-4%. 1,2 Steel lies in the middle, with anywhere from a fraction of a percent to about 2% carbon. 3,4

  • Extraction of Iron from Haematite Grade 12 Science Notes

    Extraction of Iron from Haematite. 1. Concentration: Haematite ore being oxide ore is concentrated by gravity separation process using hydraulic separator. The oxide is being heavier settles to the bottom while lighter impurities come to the surface and is

  • Ellingham - MIT

    equation for Gibbs free energy is: where H is the enthalpy, T is absolute temperature, and S is entropy. The enthalpy ( H) is a measure of the actual energy that is liberated when the reaction occurs (the carbon oxidation line goes below a metal oxidation line, the carbon can then reduce the metal oxide to metal. So, for example

  • Extraction of Iron (III) from Aqueous Sulfate Solutions by

    Extraction of Iron (III) from Aqueous Sulfate Solutions by Primene JMT aD. SCHROTTEROVÁ and bP. NEKOVÁŘ a Department of Inorganic Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, CZ-166 28 Prague b Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, CZ-166 28 Prague Received 8 June 1999 The results of the extraction of iron (III) sulfates with primary amine

  • Determination of iron by thiocyanate colorimetry

    unknown iron sample. By drawing a vertical line to the horizontal axis you will be able to determine the concentration of Fe3+ in your unknown solution. 4. Use this concentration to calculate the mass of iron (in mg) in your original tablet or food sample (NB: the molecular weight of iron is 55.8 g mol1).

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